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mfstr BrpUr isMG

 

- iekbfl rfmUvflIaf

gurdfxf Zfb

 

- jrnYl isMG syKf

prvdgfr, apfr byaMq qUM, ijnf pCfqf scu cuMmF pYr mUM.. / kIrqn klf nUM Dfrimk kwtVqf dIaF vlgxF ivwc bMd nhIN kIqf jf skdf.

 

- blbIr isMG kMvl

kTpuqlIaF

 

- aMimRqpfl isMG KLflsf

sur isMGIaf BujMgI mfsko c

 

- amrjIq cMdn

bwbU mfn dy bhfny

 

- blivMdr gryvfl

nftk / BUq

 

- kulivMdr Kihrf

BMzf BMzfrIaf [mohn BMzfrI

 

- goovrDn gwbI

eIvfn ielIc dI dUjI mOq

 

- ajmyr iswDU

bfl-sfihwq : siQqI aqy cuxOqIaF

 

- drn isMG aft (zf[)

vgdI ey rfvI

 

- virafm isMG sMDU

snmfn icMnH

 

- crnjIq isMG pMnU

'kfkipwt' qoN bfhr bxy rihx df 'qIjI iDr' df pRvcn-'irm iJm prbq'

 

- blivMdr isMG gryvfl

khfxI irm iJm prbq` nUM pVHidaF

 

- blkfr isMG

KwtIaF imwTIaF XfdF

 

- blbIr iskMd

nfvl jflL coN klfqimkqf lwBidaF

 

- AuNkfrpRIq

pfsL XfdgfrI smfgm kYilPLornIaf
(10 julfeI 2010)

 

- suirMdr DMjl

nfnkf my ryl gwzI

 

- suKdyv iswDU

pfsL aqy hirMdr isMG mihbUb

 

- suirMdr DMjl

suwcI ikqfb

 

- amrjIq cMdn

ieh sB ivgVy hoey muMzy kuVIaF sn

 

- krm isMG ihstorIan

jdoN KLUn dy ipafsy glLIN lwg ky imly

 

- hrdIp isMG Kflsf

ryzIE leI avf-tYst

 

- iekbfl rfmUvflIaf

koicMg df byimsfl klfkfr
kYroN KyzH ivMg df aQLLlYitks koc: blijMdr isMG

 

- zf[ suirMdr mMz

duwD dyx vflI mwJ

 

- bljIq bfsI

crcf ivwc hY srqfj

 

- kulivMdr Kihrf

vgdI ey rfvI

 

- virafm isMG sMDU

ijwQoN sUrj AuWgdf hY

 

- ikrpfl kfk

ienklfb qF afh KVHY

 

- aqrjIq

surjIq pfqr

 

- moinkf kumfr

irm iJm prbq, dy aMg-sMg[[[

 

- AuNkfrpRIq

rotI

 

- iekbfl rfmUvflIaf

guV

 

- blbIr iskMd

myrf pfiksqfn

 

- suKdyv iswDU

aMimRqpfl isMG dy Kq (lyK) df juafb

 

- suKpfl

myrIaF ilKqF dy svfgq df iewk pfsf

 

- igafnI sMqoK isMG

jMglI ibwlI aqy snoa

 

- AuNkfrpRIq

vgdI ey rfvI
pMjfbI siBafcfr df gOrvlfhOr

 

- virafm isMG sMDU

pwcfsI virHaF df jsLn
(jIvnI: srdfr drsLn isMG)

 

- hrjIq atvfl

myrI dOlq myrIaF icwTIaF

 

- myjr mFgt

bwly Eey afDuink zfktro

 

- govrDn gwbI

BuipMdr pRIq dI kfiv-gUMj

 

- dyivMdr kOr

Drm aqy ivigafn iewk ivsLlysLx

 

- jsdIp isMG guxhIx

 do gLjLlF

 

- gurmIq KoKr

hMugfry

 


myrI dOlq myrIaF icwTIaF
- myjr mFgt
 

 

icwTI afpxy afp ivwc iewk bVf hI ipafrf bd hY. awj dy ibjleI Xuwg ivwc eI-myl ny hwQ ilKq icwTIaF dI mhwqqf Gtf idwqI hY. awsIivaF qoN bfad icwTIaF nUM sB qoN vwD Zfa Pon ny lfeI ijvyN iewk gIq dy bol ny:-
qusIN icwTIaF pfAuxIaF Buwl gey jdoN df tYlIPon lwigaf
ipMzF ivwc pihlF pihl icwTIaF isrP POjIaF dIaF hI afieaf krdIaF sn. iPr ijAuN ijAuN pMjfb dy lokF ny ibdyF ivwc jfxf urU kIqf qF ieMglYNz, amrIkf, knyzf, jrmn aqy arb mulkF qoN vI icwTIaF afAux lwgIaF. ienHF df vwzf akfr, idlk rMg aqy ivlwKx itktF, mnF nUM tuMbdy.
keIaF nUM ivcfiraF nUM icwTIaF koeI ilKdf hI nf. iksy Gr iewk vI icwTI df nF afAuxf mMdhflI df pRqIk smiJaf jFdf. ijvyN iewk gIq dy bol ny:-
idn BfgF vfly huMdy jdoN afAux icwTIaF
pihlF pihl lok dosqF imwqrF, irqydfrF jF sky sbMDIaF nUM rfjI KuI dIaF icwTIaF iliKaf krdy sn, jo ies qrF urU huMdIaF:-
asIN eyQy sfry TIk Tfk hF, afp dF rfjI KuI pRmfqmF pfsoN BlI loVdy hF.
qy awgoN aglf vI iesdf jvfb vI eysy qrj qy idMdf. Pyr ryzIAu stynF nUM gIqF dI Prmie leI jF svfl puwCx leI vI icwTIaF ilKIaF jfx lwgIaF. ilKx vfly afl ieMzIaf ryzIAu, jF jlMDr ryzIAu styn qoN py kIqy jFdy idhfqI pRogrfm ivwc afpxy nfm vflIaF icwTIaF sux sux Ku huMdy.
jvfnI dy idnF ivwc mihbUb nUM icwTI ilKx df vI iewk afpxf hI nf huMdf hY. ieh icwTIaF KUbsUrq yarF nfl BfvnfvF dI cfnI ivwc gVuwc krky py kIqIaF jFdIaf sn. ijnHF ivwc aqkQnI alMkfrF dI Brmfr huMdI sI. aMbrF qoN qfry qoV mihbUb dy vflF ivwc tMgx vrgIaF gwlF huMdIaF sn. cux cux ky bd ngIinaF vFgUM iPwt kIqy jFdy sn. keI qF aijhIaF icwTIaF ilKx dy byhwd mfhr huMdy. afk icwTIaF ilKvfAux leI AunHF dy mgr mgr iPrdy. ienHF nUM afp qF ipafr krn vflf koeI nf huMdf ieh dUsiraF dIaF pRimkfvF nUM icwTIaF ilKky afpxf Jws pUrf kr lYNdy. bfad ivwc jdoN jdoN pRymkf nUM pRymI dy ivcfr, icwTI ivcly ivcfrF vrgy nf lwgdy qF keI vfr ienHF KUbsUrq icwTIaF df rfj vI Kuwl jFdf.
pRym icwTIaF PVfAux jF pRfpq krn dI vI afpxI hI iewk klf huMdI sI. ijs kol ieh kol ieh klf nf huMdI, pkVy vI jFdy qy bfad ivwc AunF dI iCwqr pqfx vI huMdI. jo sPl ho jFdy Auh afpxy afp nUM dunIaF dy bfdfh smJdy. bfad ivwc eyho icwTIaF AunHF leI kImqI Kfnf bx jFdIaF. ijnF nUM Auh Aumr Br sMBfl ky rwKdy.
iewk icwTI jo ajy qwk ijMdf hy Auh hY gnf dI icwTI. ijs nUM rIky BfeIcfry ivwc bih ky ilKvfieaf jFdf hY. Pyr kysr jF hldI lgf ky mOlI bMn ky muMzy vfilaF dy Gr Byijaf jFdf hY. awgoN iesy qrHF rIky BfeIcfry ivwc bYT ky ies nUM Kohilaf qy piVHaf jFdf hY. Pyr eys Gr ivafh dy jn urU ho jFdy hn. ies icwTI df sQfn ajy surwiKq jfpdf hY.
icwTIaF df bhuqf kMm hux tYlIPonF ny sMBfl ilaf hY. jdoN iksy nUM puwCo ik BfeI hor suxf, ipMzoN icwTI pwqr qF aFAudf rihMdf hovygf ? qF aglf jvfb idMdf hY bws jI Pon hI kr leIdf hY. icwTIaF dy jvfb nUM mhInF mhInF Br kOx AuzIky? mnuwK kol aYnf smF hI nhIN hY. icwTIaF qF isrP aKbfrF rsfilaF dy sMpfdkF nUM ilKy jfx qwk hI sIimq rih geIaF hn.
AuDr pMjfb ivwc vI hux hr bMdf jyb ivwc mobfeIl Pon pfeIN iPrdf hY. dunIaF suMgV ik globl ipMz bx cuwkI hY. qusIN ivv dy iksy vI ihwsy ivwc awK dy Por ivwc gwl kr skdy ho. icwTIaF ilKx vfly bMdy nUM qF hux smyN qoN pCiVaf hoieaf jf susq smiJaf jFdf hY. pRym pwqrF df kMm vI awj kwl tYlOPonF ny hI sMBfl ilaf hY. iwcTIaF PVn PVfAux qy PVy jfx df Kqrf vI jFdf irhf. qyj rPqfr iMdgI ny BfvnfvF nUM ipCfh suwt, mnuwK nUM mIn ivwc qbdIl kr idwqf hY.
koeI smF sI jdoN pMjfb dy ipMzF ivwc ivrly tFvyN hI lok pVHy ilKy huMdy sn. afm lok ienHF piVHaF iliKaF qoN hI icwTIaF ilKvfAux aqy pVHfAux jFdy sn. hux Auh dOr qF kdoN df Kqm ho cuwkf hY. awj dy iensfn kol icwTIaF dI dOlq nhIN hY aqy nF hI iksy nfl juVIaF hwQ ilKq XfdF hn. mnuwK mMzI dI vsqU bx igaf hY. Bog irhf hY jF Boigaf jf irhf hY. BfvnfvF nfl Ausdf koeI sbMD hI nhIN irhf. ijvyN iksy gIq ivwc hY:-
qyry ipafr dy pwqr asF jo sFB rwKy ny
icwTI pVHnf aqy cMgI icwTI ilKxF vkq pfs krn df aqy igafn vDfAux df iewk vDIaf ZMg sI. ijs dI muhfrq leI pusqkF vI pVHnIaF pYNdIaF sn. pr ajoky smyN ivwc KflI idmfg, Yqfn df Gr bx irhf hY. nOjvfn niaf df syvn krky smF pfs krn lwgy hn. ajokI pIVI ny icwTI ilKxI pVHnI hI nhIN CwzI blik iewk kImqI Kfny qoN vI vFJI ho geI hY. kdI kdI mYN socdf hF ik hux aijhy sunihrI gIqF df kI bxygf:-
jdoN asfzI afvy iPr sfnUM Kq ilKxf
purfxy mfny ivwc zfkIey df kMm kbUqrF qoN ilaf jFdf sI. BFvy Auh smF vI bhuq ipwCy rih igaf hY qF vI gIqF ivwc ies df ijkr kdy kdy af hI jFdf hY, ijvy:-
icwTI myry Zol nUM puhMcfeIN vy kbUqrf
Bfrq ivwc 1540 qoN lY ky 1555 qwk yr fh sUrI ny rfj kIqf. Aus ny ijwQy Bfrq ivwc vwzIaF sVkF bxvfeIaF qy AunHF dy iknfry musfPrF dy arfm leI srfvF bxfeIaF AuWQy Aus ny bfkfiedf zfk df pRbMD vI kIqf. sVkF qy cOkIaF bxfeIaF geIaF. iewk cONkI qoN dUsrI cONkI qwk zfk phuMcfx leI ivy GoV svfr vI rwKy gey. ieh islslf aMgryjF dy rfj ivwc vI cldf irhf.
Pyr zfk Byjx leI ryl gwzIaF aqy hvfeI jhff dI vrqoN hox lwgI. ikAuNik ieh mOjUdf isstm goiraF vloN clfieaf igaf sI, ies df ivroD vI hoieaf. jdoN affdI dy sMGr leI bfbf rfm isMG vloN kUkf lihr clfeI geI aqy svdysI vsqf vrqx dy afdy idwqy gey qF iews zfk pRbMD df bfeIkft vI kIqf igaf. nfmDfrIaF vloN BfvyN afpxf zfk pRbMD vI clfieaf igaf. ijs nfl pYdl cwl ky zfk puhMcfeI jFdI sI. pr zfk gwzIaF dI qy rPqfr ny lokF dy mnF nUM kfiel kr ilaf. icwTIaF keI keI mhIinaF dI bjfey hPiqaF idnF ivwc phuMcx lwgIaF. qy pMjfb ivwc keI nvyN mhfvry pRcwlq ho gey:-
dyK ikvyN zfk bixaf jFdf hY
jF dOVf jf CyqI kr, bws zfk vFgU jfeIN
dUjI sMsfr jMg qwk post kfrzF dI vrqoN kIqI jFdI sI. ijnF nUM bMd krn dI shUlq nf hox krky ilKq koeI vI pVH skdf sI, Bfv koeI pRfeIvysI nhIN sI. myry jnm smyN myry bfpU jI nUM myry BUaf jI aqy PuwPV jI vloN aijhf hI kfrz Byijaf igaf sI jo Aus vkq imltrI ivwc sn.
Qwly vflI icwTI 1945 ivwc ilKI geI hY.
ipMzF ihrF ivwc jdoN vI iksy dI zfk aFAudI qF mn JUm AuWTdf qy afm muhfry ieh gIq mnoN inwkldf:-
zfkIaf zfk lfieaf
swTivaF qoN bfad pMjfbI, vwzI qdfd ivwc bfhrly mulkF nUM jfx lwgy. swq smuMdroN pfr bYiTaF leI icwTIaF hI sB qoN vwzf shfrf bxdIaF sn. kvIaF ny icwTI nUM awDI mulkfq ikhf hY. suwcy sfhF dI sugMD ikhf hY, ijvyN bol ny:-
icwTI vflI gwlbfq, huMdI awDI mulfkfq jF
suwcy sfhF dI sugMD, huMdI awKrF `c bMd
AudoN ajy pirvfrF nUM vIy nhIN sI imldy. mF puwq df ieh ivCoVf icwTIaF ivwc hI ibafn huMdf, ijs qy gIq vI bxdy:-
icwTIey nI icwTIey drdF nf ilKIey
afKI myry sohxy puwq nUM qyrI mF df burf ey cMnf hfl
ipwCy rih geI GrvflI df Kq pVky, mn bdF rfhIN vqn phuMc jFdf:-
vqnf afieaf qyrf Kq pVHky nI sfnUM nINd nf aFAudI
smyN dy nfl nfl icwTIaF dI idK vI bdldI rhI. hry, nIly rMg dy, bMd hox vfly lPfPy pRcwlq ho gey.

bhuq jrUrI icwTIaF pIly lPfiPaF bMd krky rijstrI krvf idwqIaF jFdIaF. bhuq hI jrUrI sunyhy tYlIgRfm rFhIN Byjy jFdy. ijs nUM pMjfbI ivwc qfr ikhf jFdf sI. jMg smyN hId hoey sYinkF dy pirvfrF nUM AunHF dI mOq dI sUcnf qfr rfhIN idwqy jfx kfrn qfr df afAuxf apgn igixaf jFdf sI. qfr afeI sux ky hI lokF dy pYrF hyToN imwtI inwkl jFdI sI ik hux koeI ok sMdy imlx vflf hY. pr tYlIPon dI afmd ny zfk qfr ivBfg dI ieh ijMmyvfrI vI afpxy isr lY leI hY.
KuI vflIaF icwTIaF ivwc ivafh dy swdy pwqr, nvyN sfl jF dIvflI dy grIitMg kfrz fml huMdy sn. pr hux ienHF df irvfj vI Gt igaf hY. kdy ibdyF qoN geIaF icwTIaF mn luBfAuNdIaF sn pr hux ieh vI dyKx nUM nhIN imldIaF. keI vfr qF ibn isrnfimAuN gupq Kq vI imldy. ijnF AuWpr Byjx vflf afpxf nF pqf vI nf ilKdf. qy keI Kfs bMidaF nUM ilKy mhwqv pUrn Kq ru vI jFdy ijnF dI hmyf ksk klyjy pYNdI rihMdI.
keI Kq eyny KUbsUrq aqy ipafr Bry huMdy ik bMdf hr smyN AuzIkdf rihMdf. jdoN zfkIaF iksy df nF lY ky hfk mfrdf qF aglf drvfjy vl isrpwt dOVdf. aijhy pwqrF nUM vfr vfr pVHn nUM idl krdf. qy ienHF df jvfb vI bMdf bVI rIJ nfl idMdf. keI KqF dI ilKfeI ies qrHF huMdI ijvyN moqI icxy pey huMdy ny. keI Kq agVy dugVy, sMKyp aqy cflU ijhI iksm dy vI huMdy. icwTI pVH ky jF dyK ky ilKx vfly dI sKIaq df pqf cwl jFdf sI. ies qrHF dy sfry Kq mYnUM vI imldy rhy aqy mYN vI ieh dOr hMZfieaf. dosqF imwqrF, lyKkF aqy mhfn sKIaqF dy Kq pRfpq huMdy rhy. ijMnF ivwcoN bhuqy qF smyN dI DUV hyTF dwby gey aqy keI sFBx Xog myry jIvn dI pUMjI bx gey.
hux icwTIaF ilKx df ruJfn mwDm pY igaf hY. lokF vloN imwqrF ipafiraF dIaF icwTIaF leI lgfey gey myl bOksF ivwc awj kwl ijafdf qr ibwl jF jMk myl hI aFAudy hn. KuI df sbwb vI hux dosqF imwqrF dIaF icwTIaF nhIN sgoN pya cYWk, byrujgfrI Bwqf jF koeI hor shfieqf vfly cYWk hI bxdy hn. myry vrigaF lyKkF nUM keI pfTk rcnf pVHky jrUr Kq ilK idMdy ny. pr iksy nUM vDIaf pwqr ilKx aqy pVHn df afnMd guafc igaf hY. hux qF sfihq sBfvF dy swdy, lyKkF dy suwK sunyhy, aihm KbrF sfrf kuwJ eI myl jF tYlIPonf AuWpr hI aFAudf hY.
pr dosqF imwqrF dy ipafry pwqrF dy rUp ivwc, XfdF dy prCfvyN, jIvn df sMKyp ieiqhfs asF vI sFB rwKy ny. ienHF dy iKx vfilaF ivwcoN keI hux ies dunIaF ivwc nhIN rhy pr AunHF dIaF XfdF hn, bdF ivwc sMjoeI hoeI sKIaq hY. ieh Kq quhfzy nfl gwlF vI krdy hn qy quhfzy dosq vI hn. eI myl qF suMgVy hoey mnf df pRgtf hY. ijwQy hr bd aDUrf aqy sMkoc ky iliKaf jFdf hY. jy ies nUM ajoky iensfn dI sKIaq df bdlvf rUp vI kih leIey qF vI koeI aqkQnI nhIN.
mYN BfvyN amIr hovF jF nF, pr iewh icwTIaF myry jIvn df aihm srmfieaf hn. myry anusfr icwTIaF ilKx df islslf Kqm nhIN hoxf cfhIdf. icwTIaF nUM qF sfihq iewk aihm rUp vI mMn ilaf igaf hY. jo ik dsqvyj dy rUp ivwc vI vyKIaF jFdIaF hn. ijnF ivwc Bfrq dy pihly pRDfn mMqrI jvfhr lfl nihrU dIaF afpxI DI ieMdrf nUM ilKIaF icwTIaF. hId Bgq dIaF jy `co ilKIaF icwTIaF, pf dy Kq afpxy afp ivwc bhuq mhwqvpUrn dsqfvyj hn.
mhfn sKIaqF dIaF icwTIaF ijwQy imAUjIamF df iMgfr bxdIaF hn, AuWQy lwKF kroVF ivwc ienHF dI bolI vI huMdI hY. ho skdf hY iksy mfhn sKsIaq dI icwTI quhfzy vI Kfny ivwc fml hovy. pr mYnUM qF myrI sMBflI hr icwTI ivwc hI iewk Kfnf nr aFAudf hY. iesy krky qF mYN kihMdf hF, myrI dOlq hn myrIaF ieh icwTIaF.

Major Mangat
57 Morton Way
Brampton ON.
Canada
L6Y 2R6
Phone # 416-727-2071
majormangat@rogers.com

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