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sun surjIq pfqr dy / vfirs fh sun df vfirs

 

- surjIq pfqr

ieho-jy vI iml jfdy ny nftk krvfAux vfly! / aKy, jI, asIN ivafh ivwc zrfmf krvfAuxY!

 

- ajmyr isMG aOlK

ieMJ bixaF sfzf bkfiedf kvIrI jwQf

 

- iekbfl rfmUvflIaf

blYk nIgro ingr

 

- suKpfl

kflf bMdf

 

- suKpfl

XfdF dI kbr ivwcoN (dUjI lVI)

 

- amIn milk

rsqy dI qlf ivc

 

- svrn cMdn

mFvF vrgI mF sI myrI

 

- suirMdr mMz

sunihrI iknfrI vflf bwdl

 

- virafm isMG sMDU

15 kroV isWK

 

- iqRlocn isMG igWl

ieho ijhf hY myrf Xfr suKivMdr

 

- guridlbfgL isMG bfGf

AUDm isMG hId dI nvIN-lwBI qsvIr

 

- amrjIq cMdn

dUjf rbfbI mrdfnf

 

- afr[ zI[ inrMkfrI

sLfhkfr khfxIaF / Byq vflI gwl

 

- sMqoK isMG DIr

Bgq isMG ikhVf ?

 

- sMqoK isMG sMqoK

afE kMipAUtr iswKIey

 

- ikrpfl isMG pMnUM

pMjfbI aOrq: aMqr rftrI srokfr

 

- zf[ blivMdr kOr brfV

lihMdy pMjfb ivc pMjfbI jLbfn : iewk jfiejLf

 

- drsLn isMG afsLt (zf[)

alIgVH df XUnIvrst-hjLfrf isMG rmqf

 

- iekbfl mfhl

iek lVfeI jo huMdI huMdI tlL geI

 

- afstRylIaf qoN igafnI sMqoK isMG

ihMsf

 

- dljIq isMG, aYzimMtn

sYks-vfqsfien, Prfiez qoN Eo qwk / afDuink aOrq

 

- jsvIr dusFJ

nIly qfiraF dI mOq

 

- joigMdr kYrON

aKOqI mfzrn BUMzF dI KwKr CyVidaF

 

- zf ruipMdrjIq kOr igwl

inmK (amrjIq sfQI) dI kivqf

 

- virafm isMG sMDU

aY! pMjfb-myry ipwqrF dI Drq

 

- zf amrjIq tFzf

mYN isWK hF

 

- hrkIrq sSDr

ky nyVY ky dUir / sMqoK isMG sMqoK df kfiv-sMgRih: pYirs dI ipafs

 

- gurnfm iZwloN

iMdgI

 

- kbIr aroVf

klmF dI suwkI isafhI awK notF vwl

 

- buWD isMG nIloN

quhfzy KLq

 


ihMsf
dljIq isMG, aYzimMtn
 

 

dunIaf ivwc jLulm dy BFbV mwc rhy hn. bMb vrsfey jf rhy hn. qopF dI grj hY, bMdUkF dIaF golIaF dI kfVH-kfVH hY, tYNk KrV-KrV krdy Bwjy iPrdy hn. ikDry mnuwKI-bMb afpxf kfrf kr rhy hn. kfr-bMb, trwk-bMb lokF dI BIV ivwc Duws afAuNdy hn. mOqF df Zyr lwg jFdf hY. bwcy sihmy pey hn. aOrqF dIaF awKF ivwc aruk hMJUaF df hVH vg irhf hY. mrd ikwQy kmfeIaF krn jfx? hr QF mOq df buwq mUMh twzI KVHf idKfeI dy irhf hYY. BuwK, nMg, bImfrI df KulHm-KulHf rfj cwl irhf hY. irPLIAUjI kYNp vDdy jf rhy hn. Gr koeI hY nhIN. dwso, lok ikwDr nUM jfx? sfmrfjIey, mjLhbI kwtV-pMQIey, izktytr afpxy-afpxy QF AuWqy mFh dy afty vFg afkVy bYTyy hn. lok curfhy wqy KVHy hn. hnyrf hY, rfh lwBdf nhIN. kI ihMsf hfly vI smwisafvF df hwl kwZ skdI hY? hF, kwZ skdI hY jdoN sUrj pwCm vwloN cVHn lwg jfAUgf!
ihMsf, qsLwdd, vfieElYNs dy kI arQ hn: jLor idKfAuxf, DONs idKfAuxI, hYNkV idKfAuxI, jLKLmI krnf, jfno mfr dyxf, nfjfiejL PLfiedf AuTfAuxf afid. iehnF qrIikaF duafrf zr pYdf kIqf jFdf. afm qOr wqy ihMsf sLbd nUM lokF dy ivruwD iBMn-iBMn ZMgF nfl qfkq vrqx dy arQF ivwc ilaf jFdf hY. lokF nUM kuwitaf jFdf hY, swtF mfrIaF jFdIaF hn, jylHF ivwc suwitaf jFdf hY, qsIhy idwqy jFdy hn, kql kIqf jFdf hY, jfiedfdF qbfh kr idwqIaF hn, jfiedfdF AuWqy jLbrdsqI kbjLy kIqy jFdy hn. keI vfr lokF ivwcoN kuJ lok vI awk ky jLulm df tfkrf krn leI hiQafr cuwk lYNdy hn pr syD aqy anusLfsn dI Gft kfrn afpxf hI nuksfn krvf bYTdy hn. dfa ivwc bYTf mfPLIaf lihr nUM lokF hQoN Koh lYNdf hY aqy sLfhsvfr bx bihMdf hY. jnqf dUhrI mfr ivwc af ky KLOPLnfk ijLMdgI bsr krn leI mjbUr ho jFdI hY.
iewk srkfr dUjI srkfr dy iKLlfPL ihMsk jMg krdI hY. qbfhI mcfAuNdI hY. kroVF dI igxqI ivwc kqlfm huMdf hYy. keI vfr afpxI hI srkfr afpxI puils-PLOj duafrf ihMsf rfhIN afpxy hI lokF df Gfx krdI hY, qsIhy idMdI hY [ [ [. nsl kusLI kr idwqI jFdI hY. kqlfm krdI hY, QfixaF ivwc AuhnF nUM kuwt-kuwt ky mfr idMdI hY, jylHF ivwc suwt idMdI hYY, axmnuwKI slUk krdI hY.
iewk jfqI dUjI jfqI dy iKLlfPL qbfhI rfhIN ijLMdgI dojLKL bxf idMdI hY. mjLhbI mfPLIaf afpxf qFzv nfc nwcdf hY. afqMkvfdI rUp Dfr ky lokF nUM sLry-afm luwtdf hY. awgF lfAuNdf hY. DIaF-BYxF dI pq mfipaF sfmHxy bypq krdf hY. kqlF df dOr clfAuNdf hY. jfiedfdF dI sfV-PUk krdf hY. lokF dI avfjL df glLf Guwt idwqf jFdf hY. ies qrHF ihMsf nMgy mUMh KVHI llkfrdI hY.
gwlF qF do hI hn. lVfeI df rfh hYY jF sLFqI df. koeI lVfeI nfl afpxf mqlb kwZdf hY prMqU ies dy Ault koeI sLFqI df rfh apxf ky guMJlLF df hwl kwZdf hY.
lVfeI nfl Gr qbfh huMdy hn, KLfndfn qbfh huMdy hn, ipMzF dy ipMz nfs ho jFdy hn, sLihrF dy sLihr awgF dI lpyt ivwc af jFdy hn. lok GroN byGr ho jFdy hn, aOrqF bwicaF aqy buwiZaF AuWqy aikh jLulm huMdy hn. dys gLulfm ho jFdy hn. dusLmxI pwkI qrHF jnm lY lYNdI hY. hAuNmYN nUM rwjvyN pwTy pYNdy hn. smyN dI cfl puwTf gyVf dyx lwg pYNdI hY. mulkF ivwc gLrIbI inrMqr pwkI irhfiesL ieKLiqafr kr lYNdI hY. hiQafrF dI dOV mUMh icVfAuNdI bykfbU ho jFdI hY.
sLFqI df rfh ipafr dI rosLn msfl PV lYNdf hY. guMJlLF df hwl sLFqI nfl kwiZaf jFdf hY. dosqIaF pwkIaF kIqIaF jFdIaF hn. lokF dI KLusLhflI leI rfh lwBy jFdy hn. afpsI GrylU JgVy sLFqI-ipafr dI nINh bxf ky hwl kIqy jFdy hn. srkfrF smJ-sUJ qoN kMm lY ky myjL dy duaflLy bYT ky sfrIaF smwisafvF dIaF gMZF KolH lYNdIaF hn. amn lokF dI KLusLhflI dI agvfeI krdf hY.
ieiqhfisk qwQ mOjUd hn. lok pRfcIn kfl qoN jLulm dI cwkI df pIhx bxdy af rhy hn. byikrk bfdsLfhF, rfijaF aqy jMgI izktytrF ny afpxy dys ivwc jF bygfny dysF ivwc jf ky lokF nUM luwitaf; kqlfm kIqf; aOrqF AuDflIaF; GrF dy Gr, ipMzF dy ipMz, sLihrF dy sLihr jflLy; aOrqf dy suhfg luwty, bwcy XqIm bxf idwqy gey afid. iksy kolL koeI jvfb hY ik AuhnF ny ieh kMm iks KLusLI ivwc kIqf? ikwzf vwzf mKLOl hY ik jI Aus nUM ijwqF ijwqx df sLOk sI, afpxy rfj nUM vDfAux df sLOk sI! sfrI dunIaf df isrqfj bxn df sLOk sI! sony dy mhwl Ausfrnf Aus dI sLfn sI. rfxIaF dy JuMZ rwKxf Aus dI bfdsLfhq sI. ieiqhfisk qwQF ivwcoN jLulm dIaF kuJ AudfhrnF hfjLr hn:
jUlIas sIjLr, romn jrnYl ny 52 bI[sI[ ivwc aYvrIkm (hux bUrjs, PLrFs ivwc) ny sfry sLihr dI 40,000 dI sfrI dI sfrI abfdI df quKLm Auzf idwqf.
qyrHvIN sdI dy mMgol cMgyjL KLfn dy jLulmF nUM kOx nhIN jfxdf? Auus ny ierfn dy AuWqrI aqy pUrbI Bfg ivwc srbnfs kIqf. prsLIaf dI afbfdI pwcI lwK qoN Gwt ky ZfeI lwK rih geI. Aus ny cIn, rus aqy hMgrI ivwc byaMq qbfhI mcfeI.
cOdHvIN sdI dy iqmr lyn (smrkMd df bfdsfh 1369-1405, dwKxI aqy pwCmI eysLIaf df hmlfvr) ny kqlfm dI nIqI duafrf sLihrF dI abfdI df Kurf-Koj imtf idwqf. Aus ny 70,000 mnuwKI KopVIaF df iprfimz bxfAux df hukm idwqf. aMdfjLf lfieaf jFdf hY ik Aus ny afpxy hmilaF dOrfn krIb 170 lwK lokF dI nsl kusLI kIqI.
sMn 1793 ivwc vYNzI dy iksfnF ny PLrFs srkfr dy ivruwD bgLfvq kr idwqI sI. ies bgLfvq dy kuclx dy smyN qwk iewk lwK lok kql kIqy jf cuwkyy sn. bgLfvq kuclx leI hukm jfrI kIqf igaf sI ik vYNzIan lokF dI nsl jVHoN puwt idwqI jfey, AuhnF dy GrF dy insLfn imtf idwqy jfx, AuhnF dy jMgl aqy PLslF jflL ky suafh kr idwqy jfx.
cIn ivwc qfeIipMg dI bgLfvq (1859-1864) bhuq msLhUr hY. qfeIipMg iqafngfE ny kuieMg rfj qoN afpxf nfqf qoV ilaf. dovF ivcfly jMg iCV peI. KyqI-bfVI jflL idwqI geI. sLihrF dy lokF df KulHyafm kqlfm kIqf igaf. aMdfjLf lfieaf igaf hY ik dohIN pfsIN do qoN iqMn kroV dy ivcfly lokF aqy PLOjIaF df kql hoieaf.
dUjI boier jMg (1899-1902) dwKxI aPLrIkf ivwc ibRitsL PLOj vwloN bxfey iriPLAUjI kYNpF ijnHF nUM bfad ivwc knsYNtrysLn kYNp ikhf igaf dI alwg khfxI hY. boier dwKxI aPLrIkf dy kyp sUby zwc (hflYNz sMbMDI) gorI lokF dI aOlfd dI vsoN sI ijhVI aPLrIkn BfsLf boldI sI. ibRitsL PLOjIaF ny boier gurIilaF, boier prvfrF nUM knsYNtrysLn kYNpF ivwc iekwTf kr ilaf. PLslF aqy Gr jflL idwqy gey. KUhF dy pfxIaF ivwc jLihr pf idwqI geI. irport anusfr sMn 1901 ivwc jdoN jMg KLqm hoeI, iehnF kYNpF ivwc 93,940 boier sn. iehnF ivwcoN 27,927 ijnHF ivwc krIb 50% bwcy sn, BuwK, duwK aqy bImfrI ny ingl ley.
sMn 1936-1939 dOrfn sfry dysLF dy PLfisLstF (Augr rfsLtrvfdIaF) aqy sosLlistF (smfjvfdIaF) drimafn spyn jMg df mYdfn bx igaf. jMg 1930 ivaF ivwc lVI geI. ies nUM spyn dI isvl vfr df nF idwqf igaf.iewk pfsy spyn dI cuxI hoeI irpbilk srkfr sI ijs dI sovIaq XUnIan mdd kr irhf sI. dUjy pfsy jrnYl PLrFko PLfisLst izktytr sI ijs dI mdd ihtlr aqy msolInI kr rhy sn. jrnYl PLrFko jMg ijwq igaf sI ijs ny spyn AuWqy iewk lMmf arsf rfj kIqf. aMdfjLf lfieaf igaf ik ies jMg ivwc krIb pMj lwK mOqF hoeIaF. keI ieiqhfskfr ds lwK qwk dI sMiKaf vI dwsdy hn.
dUjI mhF ivsLv jMg ivwc nfjLIaF vwloN polYNz AuWqyy hmly ivwc Aus dys dI pMjvF ihwsf abfdI Bfv krIb swT lwK lokF df kql hoieaf. ies jMg ivwc, sovIaq XUnIan ivwc krIb 270 lwK mOqF hoeIaF. ies igxqI ivwc 35 lwK rUsI POjIaF dI igxqI vI sLfml hY ijhVI jrmn jylHF ivwc dm qoV geI.
ies ivsLv jMg (1937-1945) ivwc cIn-jpfn jMg dOrfn Gwto-Gwt do kroV cInI mfry gey. jpfnIaF ny sLihrI vsnIkF AuWqy byaMq axmnuwKI jLulm Zfey. sLihrI lokF ivwc 60 lwK ijAUjL 300 lwK iPLlpIno, mlfeI, ivtnfmI, kMbozIafeI, ieMzonysLIan aqy brmI lok mfry gey. lokF df mfl-asbfb rwj ky luwitaf igaf.
hIrosLImf aqy nfgfsfkI AuWqy suwty aYtm bMbF dI mhfmfrI dIaF cIkF, ihMsf df mnuwKqf dy mwQy AuWqy aimt kflLF Dwbf hY.
dujI ivsLv jMg ivwc mOqF dI igxqI df aMdfjLf 40 kroV qoN lY ky bhwqr kroV qwk lfieaf igaf hY. pihlI ivsLv jMg ivwc nuksfn df aMdfjLf hY ik do kroV mOqF hoeIaF aqy do kroV ds lwK jLKLmI hoey.
Bfrq vMz smyN 1947-1948 ivwc iPLrkU dMigaF kfrn mOqF df ihsfb krIb awsI lwK qoN iewk kroV lfieaf igaf hY.
ilst bhuq vwzI hY. sMKyp qOr AuWqy ihMsf dy krnfmy smJx vfsqy aYnf hI kfPLI hY.
hfl dy smyN ivwc ierfk, aPLgLfinsqfn, imzl eIst aqy aPLrIkI dysF ivwc lVfeIaF dy iswty sfzy sfiraF dy sfmHxy hn. Bfrq ivwc iPLrkU dMigaF kfrn mOqF aqy nuksfn afpF qoN Buwly hoey nhIN hn. pMjfb ivwc ipCly smyN ivwc kI kuwJ hoieaf, ZkI hI irwJx idE. sUby dy lokF df ijAuxf hrfm kr idwqf igaf sI. jo mfry gey, jo AuWjV gey, AuhI hI jfxdy hn. jLulm krn vfilaF nUM Gtnf bsMqr dyvqf hI idKfeI idMdI hY. rfj kIhny lYxf wqy kIhny dyxf, afid kfl qoN lokF nUM sB ny luwitaf hI hY, kql hI kIqf hY, qsIhy hI idwqy hn. iksy ny lok-avfjL nUM pCfixaf nhIN. gLrIb aqy ivkfsLIl dysF df mOlf hI rfKf hY. afpxI-afpxI zPlI vjfAux ivwc msrUPL hn. bws, kursI, kursI, kursI
ihMsf jF kho jMg ny lokF df koeI kMm nhIN sMvfiraf isvfey qbfhI dy. lokF sfmHxy mslf hY. afpxy hwk hfsl krn leI lok ihMsf df rfh apxfAux jF ik aihMsf df. ihMsfvfdI jyqU kfql huMdy hn. dyiKaf igaf hY ik Auh afpxy rfj ivwc vI ihMsf dI nIqI apxf ky rfj clfAuNdy hn. ivroDIaF nUM ihMsf rfhIN dbfieaf jFdf hY. lok-avfjL df glLf Guwt idwqf jFdf hY. AuhI cwkr iPr sLurU - jLulm, jLulm! jLulm df tfkrf ihMsf nfl. iPr AuhI cfl. hlt df iPr AuhI gyVf. ihMsf df qrIkf lok pwKI sfbq nhIN hoieaf hY. afm lok kql huMdy hn, brbfd huMdy hn aqy iswty vI aKLIr ivwc lok ivroDI hI inkldy hn. pwqybfjL lIzr afpxI cfl ivwc kfmXfb ho jFdy hn. pwqybfjL juMzlI rfj kfiem krdI hY aqy hmysLF lokF dIaF awKF ivwc Gwtf pfky rfj kfiem rwKdI hY. lok-rfj idKfvy df huMdf hY. ZONg qoN isvf hor kuJ nhIN.
iPr dUjf rfh aihMsfvfdI hY. ieh vfd zUMGI soc-ivcfr dI mMg krdf hY. dyKxf hY ik kI ieh vfd lokF leI PLfiedymMd sfbq ho skdf hY? soc lE, smF hY.

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