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kivqf aqy nfvl dI kmk

- ipafrf isMG Bogl

 

aMgryI Bff df pRiswD nfvlkfr Qfms hfrzI mUl rUp ivwc kvI sI. Ausdf jnm AuWnIvIN sdI ivwc hoieaf. Aumr dy pihly lwgpwg vIh sfl kivqf rcdf irhf. pr sfry XUrp ivwc kivqf dy mukfbly ivwc nfvl hrmn ipafrf ho igaf sI. PrFs, jrmnI qy rUs ivwc nfvlkfr aijhy nfvl rc rhy sn jo afpxy afpxy dy qoN ibnF dUjIaF XUrpIn BffvF aqy aMgryI Bff ivwc anuvfd ho rhy sn, DVfDV ivk rhy sn. iekwly rUs ivwc AuWnIvIN sdI ivwc puikn, qurgnyv, gogol, dfsqovskI aqy tflstfie dy nfvl ilKy gey aqy bhuq pVHy gey. PrFs dy do vwzy nfvlkfr bflfk aqy Plfbyar AuWnIvIN sdI ivwc hI hoey. nfvl dy nfl nfl afDunik khfxI vI AuWnIvIN sdI ivwc hI pRPuwlq hoeI. sMsfr dy do sB qoN vwzy khfxIkfr mupFsF aqy cYv iesy sdI ivwc khfxIaF rcdy rhy. rUsI lyKk gogol, ijsny nftk, nfvl aqy khfxIaF ilKIaF, dI ilKI hoeI khfxI Evrkot bfry ivdvfnF ny ikhf ik XQfrQvfdI khfxI Evrkot dI jyb ivwcoN inklI hY. Xurp ivwc nfvlF dy nfl nfl khfxIaF Cfpx vfly mfsk-pwqrF dI eynI mMg sI ik keI lyKk pRkfkF aqy mfsk-pwqrF dy sMpfdkF pfsoN afpxI ilKI jf rhI rcnf dy pYsy pygI lY lYNdy sn. bfad ivwc ilKq mukMml kr ky idMdy sn. PrFs df iewk nfvlkfr do pRkfkF pfsoN iewko smyN pygI rfieltI PVH lYNdf. iewk nUM dyx vflf nfvl dupihr qwk ilKdf, qy dUjy nUM dyx vflf nfvl fm qwk ilKdf. mfsk-pwqr khfxIaF dy nfl-nfl nfvl vI ikqF ivwc Cfpdy sn. rUsI khfxIkfr cYv (1860-1904 eI) piVHaf qF zfktrI sI, pr zfktr bxn dI QF glpkfr bx igaf. pYsy vwloN sdf QuiVaf rihMdf. Auh vI pricaF dy sMpfdkF pfsoN ilKI jfx vflI khfxI dy pYsy pygI PVH lYNdf. ieAuN Auh inwkIaF vwzIaF khfxIaF vwzI igxqI ivwc ilKdf irhf.

suBfvk hI AuWnIvIN sdI ivwc kivqf dI bykdrI ho geI. pfTk nfvl qy khfxI vwl AuWlr gey. Qfms hfrzI (1840 1928 eI: ) ny nfvl ilKx pVHn df irvfj dyK ky lwgpwg 1825 qoN 1900 eI: qwk kivqf Cwz ky nvfl ilKy. Ausdf sB qoN pRiswD nfvl tYWs pMjfbI ivwc keI vfr anuvfd ho ky Cipaf hY. hfrzI PrFs dy XQfrQvfdI nfvlkfrF qy khfxIkfrF qoN pRBfivq sI. Aus qoN pihlF aMgryI Bff dy do pRiswD nfvlkfr cfrls izkn aqy Qykry ihr dy lokF, fs qOr qy grIb lokF df jIvn vrnx krdy rhy. hfrzI dy nfvl ihrI lokF dy jIvn df vrxn nhIN krdy, ipMzF dy sfDfrn lokF df jIvn vrxn krdy hn. tYWs iewk suMdr muitafr hY, pr Gr dy hflfq eyny rfb ny ik AusnUM Gr Cwz ky dUr durfzy dy ipMzF ivwc rih ky gAUaF dIaF DfrF cox df kMm krnf pYNdf hY. Ausdf pRym iewk hfxI nOjvfn nfl pY jFdf hY, pr iewk sPr ivwc iewk amIr iMmIdfr df ivgiVaf puwqr AusnUM Gyr lYNdf hY, qy AusdI mjbUrI df Pfiedf AuTf ky AusdI pwq luwt lYNdf hY. afpxy pRymI nfl ivafh krfky ieh BolI BflI kuVI ivafh vflI rfq nUM pRymI nUM afpxy nfl ho cuwkI vfrdfq df swc dws idMdI hY. pRymI AusdI apivwqrqf qoN nfrf ho ky dOV jFdf hY. lYitn amrIkf dy iewk dy ivwc smF gufrdf hY. pr ipwCy CwzI hoeI BolI pRyimkf nUM Buwl nhIN skdf. vfps afAuNdf hY, pr ijLMmIdfr df ivgiVaf hoieaf puwqr tYWs df ipwCf nhIN Cwzdf. qMg pY ky tYWs Ausdf kql kr idMdI hY. pRymI vfps af ky tYWs dI bFh PVdf hY, pr ies vyly qwk bhuq dyr ho cuwkI hY. kql dy do ivwc tYWs igRPqfr ho jfdI hY, qy AusnUM PFsI dI sf idwqI jFdI hY. ivdvfnF ny ikhf sI ik aMgryI Bff dy kvI ivlIam vrzvrQ (1770 1850 eI: ) ny afpxI kivqf ivwc mfnvqf dy ijs Kfmo Audfs sMgIq dI pykfrI kIqI sI, Ausy iensfn dy duwKF dIaF khfxIaF hfrzI ny afpxy nfvlF ivwc py kIqIaF. ajIb gwl ieh sI ik lwgpwg pwcI sfl nfvl ilK ky hfrzI Aumr dy afKrI 25 sfl Pyr kivqf vwl muV afieaf. afKrI sflF ivwc nfvl Cwz ky kivqf rcdf irhf.
kivqf qy nfvl ivckfr ieh kmk ikAuN pYdf hoeI? iesdf muwK kfrn sMsfr vwl mnuwK df bdldf vqIrf sI. ivigafn df Xuwg urU hox qoN pihlF qwk sMsfr aqy pRikrqI mnuwK leI rhws rhy. bRihmMz df rhws mnuwK ivwc zUMGy rhwsvfdI mnoBfv jgfAuNdf sI. mnuwK buwDImfn huMdf hoieaf, ivv dy rhws AuWqy bilhfr jFdf sI. AusnUM dunIaF Byq BrI KUbsUrq rcnf jfpdI sI. Auh Byq BrI KUbsUrq rcnf dy rcnhfr dI klpnf krdf sI. iesy mnuwK ny rwb dI isrjxf kIqI hY. pihlF Coty Coty dyvqy isrjy, iPr vwzf rwb. muwZly mnuwK nUM ndIaF, phfV, pMCI qy ibRC, hvf, pfxI qy sUrj swBy hI ivsmfd ivwc lY afAuNdy sn. Auh iehnF kudrqI cIF AuWqy moihq ho ky iehnF dI mihmf ivwc gIq rcdf sI. irgvyd asl ivwc ieMdr (bfr df dyvqf) aqy agnI dI mihmf ivwc ilKy hoey gIqF df sMgRih hY.

Byq-Bry kudrqI KfinaF BrpUr, suMdr bRihmMz nUM dyK ky mnuwK dy mn ivwc pYdf huMdf ivsmfd (sense of wonder) kivqf df somf bxdf hY.

pr jdoN ivigafn dIaF kfZF qy lwBqF ny Byq KoliHaf ik sUrj dyvqf nhIN, awg df golf hY. cMd mfmf nhIN, TMZI ho cuwkI DrqI hY, sMsfr iksy rwb ny nhIN isrijaf, mfdy qoN pYdf hoeI imwtI vrgI cI hY, qF mnuwK df ivsmfd jy kfPUr nhIN ho igaf qF Gt igaf. ieAuN kivqf rcx leI jo mwTf ho igaf. rhws dI QF XQfrQ py krn leI sfihq dy sMsfr ivwc rfj-plty ho gey. kivqf dy tfkry ivwc vfrqk ny isr cuwikaf. kivqf suMdr-CbIlI sI. vfrqk sfd-murfdI sI. pr ikAuNik, PYktrI ivwc kMm krdy mjdUr vFg vfrqk ny sMsfr df Bfr afpxy moiZaF AuWqy cuwk ilaf, ies krky kivqf vrgy rs qy alMkfrmeI iMgfr qoN rihq huMdI hoeI vI, vfrqk pihlF XUrp, ieMglYNz aqy amrIkf ivwc qy iPr pMjfb smyq Bfrq ivwc CflF mfr ky awgy vDI. vfrqk dI mdd krn leI ivigafn ny CfpyKfny dI kfZ kwZI. CfpyKfny ny aKbfr aqy ikqfbF CfpIaF. pwqrF ivwc aqy ikqfbF ivwc kivqf vI CpI, pr vfrqk bhuq CpI. vfrqk ivwc sMsfr df XQfrQ py krn leI, inbMD, nfvl, khfxI, sPrnfmf, jIvnI, svYjIvnI, ryKf-icwqr afid nvyN rUpfkfr pYdf ho gey. amrIkn ivdvfn kihMdy hn ik afDuink khfxI pwqrkfrI dI kuwKoN pYdf hoeI. swcI gwl ieh hY ik ivigafn dIaF kfZF aqy lwBqF ny mnuwK nUM rhws BrpUr sMsfr bfry eynf igafn idwqf ik Aus aMdr hfrF sflF qoN aigafq nUM jfnx dI dwbI peI BuwK jfg peI. kivqf qF aigafq nUM aigafq kih ky Auhdy gux gfeI jFdI sI. gurU nfnk sfhb ny iliKaf sI, iQwq vfr nf jogI jfxY, ruiq mfh nf koeI, jf krqf isrTI kAu sfjY afpy jfxY soeI. pr vfrqk Byq KolHx lwg peI. iesy krky inbMD ny bhuq qrwkI kIqI. BfeI vIr isMG qy pRo: pUrn isMG dovyN kvI sn. pr AuhnF ny inbMD ilKy. pUrn isMG ny qF iliKaf, rUh dI nMgI qsvIr vfrqk ivwc hI icqrI jf skdI hY.
aigafq dy Byq qF lwBy hI gey, jo afly-duafly igafq sI, idsdf XQfrQ sI, AusnUM py krn dI hor vI vzyrI loV pYdf hoeI. iesy krky vfrqk ivwc nfvl aqy afDunik khfxI dIaF ivDfvF pYdf hI nhIN hoeIaF, iehnF dohF ivDfvF ny ipCly 2-300 sflF ivwc sfihq df kyNdrI ipVH mwl ilaf. AuWnIvIN sdI nUM qF nfvl df sunihrI Xuwg ikhf igaf.
sfnUM aMgryI sfihq pVHfAux vfly iewk pRoPYsr sfihb ikhf krdy sn ik kivqf df Xuwg Kqm hY. hux qF nfvl df Xuwg hY.
asIN ieh qF nhIN mMndy ik kivqf mr rhI hY, jF mr jfeygI, pr ieh gwl TIk hY ik awj dy mnuwK dI zMJ vfrqk qoN bgYr buJdI nhIN. ieh kQn hY ik hr svyr sMsfr Br ivwc lwKF sPy aKbfr ivwc vfrqk ivwc Cpdy hn. kroVF lok svyr dI cfh aKbfr dy ibnF nhIN pI skdy. isrP dYink pwqr vI byaMq sPy vfrqk ivwc ilKy inbMDF, khfxIaF aqy nvfl- aMF dy Cfpdy hn.
kivqf dI QF nfvl ny ikvyN sMBflI hY, iesdf ieh pRmfx mhFkfiv dy mhwqv df Gtxf hY. ivrly ivrly mhFkfiv afDuink Xuwg ivwc vI ilKy gey hn, pr awj df smF mhFkfiv df nhIN. mhFkfiv dI QF nfvl ny lY leI hY. rfl Pfks afpxI pusqk nfvl aqy lok ivwc ilKdf hY ik nfvl burjuafI Xuwg df mhFkfiv hY.
qF kI kivqf afAuNdy smiaF ivwc hor vI Gwt ilKI jfeygI? nhIN.
kivqf iksy Xuwg ivwc sfihq df iewko iewk rUp huMdI sI. kvI hI sfihqkfr khfAuNdf sI. Pyr vfrqk pYdf ho geI. pr vfrqk kivqf dy aDIn rhI. kivqf dI syivkf. pMjfbI sfihq dy ieiqhfs ivwc yK PrId (1173 1266 eI) qoN lY ky 1900 eI: qwk muwK pdvI kivqf nUM imlI rhI. vfrqk isr kvIaF dI kivqf dI ivafiKaf leI hI ilKI jFdI rhI. pr hux hflq ieh nhIN. hux vfrqk suqMqr ho geI hY qy kivqf dy brfbr ilKI jf rhI hY. sMq isMG syKoN qy pRo: mohn isMG dovyN smkflI sn. syKoN ny kdy kdy kivqf vI ilKI, pr muwK qOr qy khfxI, nftk aqy aflocnf df ipV mwilaf. mohn isMG ny vI khfxIaF df iewk sMigRh inwkI inwkI vfnf iliKaf, pr Auh muwK qOr qy kvI bixaf. donF df sfihq-sMsfr ivwc brfbr df afdr mfx hY.
awj igafn ivigafn df Xuwg hY, pr mnuwK dy afpxy mnoBfv vI hn. suMdrqf aqy kuhj, KuI aqy mI, qFG aqy inrff, ainafie aqy inafie hfsl krn leI mnuwK df sMGr afid vsqU mnuwK dy jbfq CyVdy hn. nr nfrI df afpsI sMbMD, bwcy nfl mnuwK df irqf, iewk mnuwK df dUjy mnuwK nfl irqf, kudrq dI rMg-brMgI lIlHf afid vsqU mnuwK aMdr suwqy pey kvI dIaF qrbF jgfAuNdy hn. kI purK nfrI nUM pRym krnf bMd kr skdf hY? kI mnuwK nUM Bolf Bflf qoqlIaF gwlF krdf bwcf ipafrf lwgxoN bMd ho skdf hY? kI pRdUx rihq kudrq df suhj mnuwK leI afpxI iKwc gvf skdf hY? nhIN. jy ieh sB iKwcF kfiem hn qF kivqf ikvyN mr skdI hY?
kivqf ijAUNdI rhygI, pr vfrqk vDyry ilKI jfeygI. vfrqk ivwc inbMD qy nfvl dI srdfrI bxI rhygI.

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